Cervical cancer is a significant health concern that affects thousands of women worldwide each year. Understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and knowing the preventive measures and treatment options can empower you to take proactive steps in safeguarding your health.

What Is Cervical Cancer?

ervical cancer develops in the cells of the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. It is primarily caused by persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV).

Causes of Cervical Cancer

The primary cause of cervical cancer is infection with high-risk HPV types. HPV is a common virus that is transmitted through sexual contact. While most HPV infections resolve on their own, persistent infection with high-risk types can lead to the development of cervical cancer.

Other risk factors include:

Smoking: Tobacco use can increase the risk of cervical cancer.

Weak Immune System: Women with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV, are at a higher risk.

Long-term Use of Oral Contraceptives: Prolonged use of birth control pills may slightly increase the risk.

Multiple Full-term Pregnancies: Having multiple full-term pregnancies can raise the risk.

Early Sexual Activity: Early onset of sexual activity increases the likelihood of HPV infection.

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer

Early stages of cervical cancer often have no symptoms, which is why regular screening is crucial. As the disease progresses, symptoms may include:

Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding: This can occur after intercourse, between menstrual periods, or after menopause.

Unusual Vaginal Discharge: A watery, bloody discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor.

Pelvic Pain: Pain during intercourse or pelvic pain that is unrelated to other conditions.

Prevention of Cervical Cancer

Preventive measures are essential in reducing the risk of cervical cancer. Here are somev effective strategies:

1. HPV Vaccination

The HPV vaccine protects against the types of HPV that most often cause cervical cancer. It is most effective when administered before an individual becomes sexually active, typically recommended for girls and boys aged 11-12.

2. Regular Screening

Routine Pap tests (Pap smears) and HPV tests can detect precancerous conditions of the cervix so that they can be monitored or treated before they turn into cancer. Women should start getting Pap tests at age 21 and follow their healthcare provider’s recommendations for subsequent screenings.

3. Safe Sexual Practices

Using condoms and limiting the number of sexual partners can reduce the risk of HPV infection. Regular STI testing and open communication with sexual partners about health are also crucial.

4. Smoking Cessation

Quitting smoking can significantly lower the risk of developing cervical and other types of cancer.

Treatment of Cervical Cancer

The treatment for cervical cancer depends on the stage of the disease, the size of the tumor, and the patient’s overall health. Common treatment options include:

1. Surgery

Surgical options range from removing the cancerous tissue from the cervix to performing a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus). In some cases, nearby lymph nodes may also be removed.

2. Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. It can be used alone or in combination with chemotherapy, particularly in advanced stages of cervical cancer.

3. Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy involves using drugs to kill cancer cells. It is often used in conjunction with radiation therapy for treating advanced cervical cancer.

4. Targeted Therapy

Targeted therapy uses drugs that specifically target cancer cell mechanisms. It is less commonly used for cervical cancer but may be an option in certain cases.


Cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable disease when caught early. Regular screening, HPV vaccination, and adopting healthy lifestyle practices are key to reducing your risk. If you experience any symptoms or have concerns about your risk, consult your healthcare provider for personalized advice and screening options. Early detection and timely treatment can make a significant difference in the outcome and quality of life for women diagnosed with cervical cancer.

Are you due for a cervical cancer screening or have concerns about your gynecological health? Dr. Shalini Vijay, the best lady gynecologist in Pune, is here to provide expert care and guidance. With her extensive experience and compassionate approach, Dr. Shalini Vijay ensures you receive the highest standard of care tailored to your needs.

Book Your Appointment Today!

Don’t wait to prioritize your health. If you’re searching for a “gynecologist near me,” schedule your appointment with Dr. Shalini Vijay today. Visit our website or call Diva Clinic to book your consultation now. Your health and well-being are our top priority!